? ? ? ? a? Research Group for Advanced Materials & Sustainable Catalysis (AMSC), State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China
Key Laboratory of Clay Minerals of Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China, Engineering Research Center of Non-metallic Minerals of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resource, Hangzhou 310007, China
Qing Yang Institute for Industrial Minerals, You Hua, Qing Yang, Chi Zhou 242804, China
Institut de Chimie des Milieux et Matériaux de Poitiers (IC2MP), UMR 7285 CNRS, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex 9, France
Zhijiang College, Zhejiang University of Technology, Shaoxing 312030, China
Received 24 April 2018, Revised 1 November 2018, Accepted 3 November 2018, Available online 15 November 2018.
Modification of?saponite?(Sap) by surface engineering and intercalation chemistry introduces guest species into the structure of Sap and enhances the functionalities of the resultant Sap-based hybrids or composites. This review summarizes and evaluates latest scientific advances in the strategies for surface engineering, intercalation and hybridization of Sap, the insights into the relevant mechanisms, and the properties and applications of the resultant Sap-based materials. Studies have indicated that Sap can be inorganically modified by?acid activation, inorganic cation exchange, pillaring, and adsorption. The methods of preparing organo-saponite (OSap) hybrids can be categorized as follows: 1) exchanging the inorganic cations in the?interlayer?space of Sap with organic cations; 2)?covalent?grafting?of organic moieties or groups onto the surface of Sap; 3) intercalating polymer into the interlayer space of Sap by solution intercalation, and melt mixing or?in situ polymerization. Organic-inorganic modified Sap can be made through the reactions between organic species and inorganic-modified Sap, or by the combination of inorganic species with organic-modified Sap. Modified Sap exhibits exceptional?thermal stability, surface?acidity, optical effects and adsorption. As such, the modified Sap can be used for?optical materials,?adsorbents, catalysts and clay/polymer?nanocomposites?(CPN). Literature survey suggests that future studies should place emphasis on optimizing and scaling up the modification of Sap, probing the thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanisms of the modification of Sap, endowing Sap with novel functionalities, and accordingly advancing the practical applications of the resultant Sap-based materials.